Having issues with a user being loaded with a temporary profile and you have checked the basic trouble shooting.
There is two other errors you can check.
The Error:- Windows cannot find the local profile and is logging you on with a temporary profile. Changes you make to this profile will be lost when you log off.
- run sfc /scannow which will check for any windows corrupted or missing files
- HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion\ProfileList